The U.S. Department of State issues visas to foreign nationals traveling to the United States through its embassies or consulates. However, you do not need a visa for your business meeting or for vacation if you are a citizen of the 38 countries participating in the Visa Waiver Program.
Your reason for travel will determine the type of visa you need to enter the U.S. Some of the most common requested visas are:
- Business or professional visas for citizens of Canada and Mexico
- Visitor visas for tourism or business
- Visas for students
- Immigrant visa for permanent residency
- Transit visa for traveling through the U.S. on your way to visit another country
- Fiancé(e) visa to marry your U.S. citizen fiancé(e), and live, in the U.S.
When you arrive in the United States, you must show valid travel documents as part of the entry process. The documents you need depend on the country you are arriving from and your citizenship or status.
Arrival from Canada, Mexico, and Bermuda
The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative covers travel by land, sea, or air from Canada, Mexico, and Bermuda:
- American citizens entering the U.S. must show a valid passport, U.S. passport card, Trusted Traveler Program card (NEXUS, SENTRI, Global Entry or FAST), or an enhanced driver’s license. If you have any questions, contact your carrier to find out if they require a specific document.
- Lawful permanent residents of the U.S. need to show a Permanent Resident Card (Green card). A passport is not required.
- Citizens of Canada, Mexico and Bermuda can find the necessary travel documents from the Department of Homeland Security under “land and sea entry.”
Arrival from Other Countries
- All travelers entering the United States from all other countries need a passport upon arrival (regardless of their country of citizenship).
- Permanent residents and foreign nationals may also need a U.S. visa. You must apply for a visa before you start your trip.
Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers conduct arrival inspections using the same criteria for all foreign nationals visiting the U.S. They decide your admission to the United States, even if all your travel documents, including your visa, are in order.
Note: While there are no rules prohibiting pregnant visitors from entering the United States, doing so to give birth is prohibited. A CBP officer will consider your pregnancy when deciding on your admission.
- For more information, contact Customs and Border Protection.
If you’re seeking permanent resident status in the United States, the process you’ll follow will depend on whether you’re already in the U.S.
- If you’re in the U.S., you do not have to apply for an immigrant visa. Instead, you will apply for a Permanent Resident (Green) Card through an adjustment of status. The advantage of this is that you won’t have to return to your home country to complete visa processing.
- If you’re outside the U.S., you will apply for an immigrant visa through consular processingwith a U.S. Department of State embassy or consulate abroad.
Both procedures involve several key steps.
- In most cases, someone must “sponsor” you, or file an immigrant petition for you.
- Once the petition is approved, and there is a visa available in your category, you apply for either a Green Card or an immigrant visa.
- You get a medical examination.
- You go to an interview.
- You receive a decision on your application.
Top Types of Immigrant Visas
Most people who come to the U.S. using an immigrant visa receive one of the following types:
- Family-based visa, which is based on a family relationship with a U.S. citizen or permanent resident.
- Employment-based visa, which generally requires a job offer from a U.S. employer.
Another popular way to seek an immigrant visa is through the Diversity Visa Lottery program. This program allows foreign citizens from countries with low immigration rates to the United States to participate in an annual, random drawing for an immigrant visa.
After You Get Your Immigrant Visa
Once you get your immigrant visa, you’ll have to pay a USCIS immigrant fee before you’ll receive your Green Card. The best time to pay the fee is after you pick up your immigrant visa from the Department of State embassy or consulate abroad and before you depart for the United States.
When you receive your immigrant visa, you’ll get a sealed immigrant visa packet of documents which you’ll give to officials at the U.S. port of entry. If you pass inspection, you’ll be admitted to the U.S. as a permanent resident, and will receive your Green Card in the mail.
Refugees are people who fled their homes for a variety of reasons, including persecution (or the fear of persecution) and war, to find protection elsewhere.
If you believe you need protection as a refugee, contact the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) or another international nonprofit volunteer agency. If these organizations are unavailable to you, contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or consulate.
Asylum is a form of protection available to refugees. You must meet certain conditions to request asylum in the United States. After getting asylum in the U.S., you:
On September 24, 2017, the President signed a Presidential proclamation that makes changes to the immigration policy.
These agencies provide information to the public about Presidential proclamations and Executive orders related to immigration and have the latest information about traveling to the U.S. :
If you are outside the United States, you may be able to find more information from the U.S. Embassy in your country.